By R. Grimboll. Wofford College.
To evaluate the amount of hyperextension cheap avana 100 mg line, place one hand above the knee to hold the thigh and place the other hand on the patient’s foot to life the heel off of the examination table purchase 100 mg avana fast delivery. If full extension is not maintained of tension buy avana 50mg with amex, the graft can withstand the forces postoperatively 200 mg avana amex, the graft will hypertrophy and applied with an aggressive rehabilitation pro- block full knee extension purchase avana 50mg with amex. These during its healing stages and therefore allow patients all returned an anterior knee pain ques- normal motion. Previously existing patellofemoral chondro- Their results were compared with those of a con- malacia has been thought by some orthopedic trol group, which consisted of 122 young healthy surgeons to be a relative contraindication to asymptomatic athletes, averaging 20. Full hyperextension was achieved in all patients The existence of patellofemoral chondromala- and the average loss of flexion was five degrees at cia can be diagnosed with history, physical 2. It was necessary for examination, radiographs, and MRI. Some have 21 of these patients to undergo arthroscopic lysis tried other types of screening studies such as of adhesions at an average of 6. Out of a some surgeons will perform an initial diagnostic possible 100 points, the ACL-reconstructed arthroscopy to evaluate the patellofemoral joint patients scored 89. We concluded from these results that string or allograft. Both of these grafts are far regaining hyperextension was the key to decreas- inferior choices as they do not allow for an accel- ing the incidence of anterior knee pain. When patellofemoral joint to be of any significance in proper graft placement, appropriate tensioning, postoperative performance or symptoms other and adequate notchplasty are simultaneously than a mild increased incidence of pain with performed, full hyperextension should be sports and kneeling. Immediately after surgery, patients should be able to obtain full hyperextension in the ACL-reconstructed knee equal to the normal knee. The heel prop exercise shown in this figure is an easy method for achieving full extension. Prevention of Anterior Knee Pain after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction 287 study, we noticed that of 49 patients that reported does not need to be addressed surgically. Therefore, even history is inaccurate in 1999, 125 patients met the study criteria of having assessing the extent of disease in this area. The objective and patients with patellofemoral disease did not have subjective results of the study group were com- significantly different anterior knee pain scores pared with a matched control group of patients from other patients without any patellofemoral who had intact menisci and no articular cartilage disease or from the control group of young damage. We believe that after surgery, the mean subjective score was 92. The advantages of the bone-patellar ten- cantly different, but both scores represent a good don-bone autograft far outweigh the slightly outcome. The radiographic results were not statis- increased risk of symptoms with kneeling and tically significantly different between the study sports. The study by Associated pathology found during surgery Shelbourne and colleagues13 provides baseline most often includes meniscus damage and information that can be used to compare the chondromalacia of the articular surfaces. It can results of procedures designed to treat articular also include other ligament damage and osteo- cartilage defects. Meniscus lesions are addressed during anterior knee pain after surgery. Many fixation surgery either with trephination and left in situ, devices, including screws with washers, interfer- partial resection, or repair. A meniscus tear is ence screws, staples, and buttons, have been used most often in the posterior horn and should not depending on graft technique. Recent design give the type of symptoms seen with anterior improvements, such as low-profile head-on knee pain. The pain is usually more localized screws, have been made in an effort to minimize posteriorly, or is perceived by the patient to be irritation that can become symptomatic. Physical findings are more spe- tion, careful technique in covering the device cific with joint line tenderness posteriorly and a with soft tissue should be performed when possi- positive McMurray test. Because meniscus ble because even suture knots may become lesions are addressed intraoperatively, it theo- symptomatic. Despite these advances and pre- retically should not cause any pain postopera- cautions, these hardware devices still can be a tively. However, an iatrogenic source of pain problem and may necessitate a second operation after meniscus repair can occur, especially with to remove the device once the graft is fully incor- placement of devices such as absorbable arrows, porated and healed. This pain, however, can also which can overpenetrate the capsule and cause be localized over the device by palpation and sharp pain.
Several large cheap 50 mg avana, randomized generic avana 200 mg online, controlled clinical trials eval- uated the use of ACE inhibitors early after acute MI avana 200mg with amex; all but one trial revealed a significant reduction in mortality cheap avana 100mg with amex. To determine whether nitroglycerin therapy is beneficial in patients treated with reperfusion cheap avana 200mg free shipping, 58,050 patients with acute MI in the ISIS-4 trial were ran- domized to receive either oral controlled-release mononitrate therapy or placebo; throm- bolytic therapy was administered to patients in both groups. The results of this study revealed no benefit from the routine administration of oral nitrate therapy in this setting. Previously, routine prophylactic antiarrhythmic therapy with I. However, studies have revealed that prophylactic therapy with lidocaine does not reduce and may actually increase mortality because of an increase in the occurrence of fatal bradyarrhythmia and asystole. A 49-year-old white woman was admitted last night with an acute ST segment elevation MI. She under- went left heart catheterization with restoration of blood flow to her left circumflex artery and is currently in the CCU. She has received anticoagulation therapy and has been started on an ACE inhibitor, aspirin, and a beta blocker. Which of the following statements regarding possible complications of acute MI is true? The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) trial showed that rhythm-control strategies provided a signif- icant survival advantage when compared with rate-control strategies ❏ B. Beta blockers may reduce the early occurrence of ventricular fibrilla- tion ❏ C. Severe mitral regurgitation is 10 times more likely to occur with anteri- or MI than with inferior MI ❏ D. When patients have right ventricular infarction, the left ventricle is almost always spared of any damage Key Concept/Objective: To know the complications associated with acute MI Although lidocaine has been shown to reduce the occurrence of primary ventricular fib- rillation, mortality in patients receiving lidocaine was increased because of an increase in fatal bradycardia and asystole, and prophylactic lidocaine is no longer recommended if defibrillation can rapidly be performed. Beta blockers may reduce the early occurrence of ventricular fibrillation and should be administered to patients who have no contraindica- tions. The treatment of atrial fibrillation in acute MI should be similar to the treatment of atrial fibrillation in other settings. If atrial fibrillation recurs, antiarrhythmic agents may be used, although their impact on clinical outcomes is unproven. Mild mitral regurgita- tion is common in acute MI and is present in nearly 50% of patients. The posterior papil- lary muscle receives blood only from the dominant coronary artery (the right coronary artery in nearly 90% of patients); thrombotic occlusion of this artery may cause rupture of the posterior papillary muscle, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation. Although nearly all patients with right ventricular infarction suffer both right and left ventricular infarction, the characteristic hemodynamic findings of right ventricular infarction generally domi- nate the clinical course and must be the main focus of therapy. Examination findings were as follows: BP, 158/87 mm Hg; pulse, 105 beats/min; and lung crackles at bases. ECG showed an ST segment elevation of 3 mm in leads V2 through V5 with reciprocal ST segment depression in leads II, III, and aVF. Laboratory results 1 CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE 21 showed normal CK and troponin I levels and an LDL level of 120. After administration of O2, aspirin, nitrates, and morphine, the chest pain subsided, but the ECG still shows an ST segment elevation in leads V2 through V5. Which of the following would you consider for initial treatment of this patient? Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor Key Concept/Objective: To understand the indications and contraindications for reperfusion therapy This patient was initially treated for acute MI, and he now needs to receive reperfusion therapy as rapidly as possible to restore normal antegrade blood flow in the occluded artery. Reperfusion may be accomplished by thrombolytic therapy or by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In prospective trials, thrombolytic therapy has been shown to reduce mortality by 29% in patients with ST segment elevation who have been treated within 6 hours of the onset of chest pain. In prospective, randomized clinical trials comparing thrombolytic therapy with direct coronary angioplasty, direct coronary angioplasty was associated with lower morbidity and mortality than thrombolytic thera- py. PTCA, therefore, is the preferred choice in facilities that have surgical backup where it can be performed quickly and that have a high angiographic success rate. Reperfusion therapy is contraindicated in patients who present with conditions that predispose them to significant bleeding. Thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated in patients who have ECG abnormalities other than ST segment elevation or bundle branch block.
It is based on clinico- therapeutic considerations aimed at comprehensive treatment of local and systemic histopathological alterations characteristic of cellulite cheap 100 mg avana free shipping. For example buy 200 mg avana mastercard, within the ﬁrst group cheap 200mg avana amex, patients are classiﬁed into android buy avana 100mg line, gynoid buy 100mg avana otc, or normal type. From the very beginning, this provides indications of local endocrine pathologies and, therefore, of a certain type of consti- tution. Among gynoid patients, Barraquer–Simmons types are more frequent than Launois–Bensaude types. In the presence of lower limb symp- toms, presumptive diagnosis may be oriented toward veno-lymphatic insufﬁciency (lipolym- phedema or phlebo-lipolymphedema), which, in turn, suggests eventual therapeutic results. Wherever phlebo-lymphological symptoms are found, the following treatments should be considered: & Mesotherapy with phlebotonics & Sequential pressure therapy & Manual lymphatic drainage & Carboxytherapy & Endermologie treatment & Use of elastic hose In the absence of phlebo-lymphological symptoms, nonvascular causes should be investigated. The patient’s motivation is essential because—besides the information it provides—it also indicates actual psychophysical conditions. Other groups of patients, for example as S3 (patients with medium obesity) must be treated as patients with multifactorial functional diseases and they must be referred to an endocrinologist or a nutritionist. Prior consent of the patient is required for the following treatments: & Intake of a cyclic high-protein diet alternated with hyponutritional balanced diet & Oxygenclasis & 1 Systemic Endermologie (action of lymphatic drainage, lipolysis, and depuration) & 1 Eventual liposculpture associated with postsurgical Endermologie (drainage/ stimulation/invigoration) and carboxytherapy 124 & BACCI AND LEIBASCHOFF In group S4 (hyperobese patients): The patient should be referred to a specialist. Prior consent of the patient is required for the following treatments: & Prolonged intake of a high-protein diet alternated with hyponutritional balanced diet & Mesotherapy & 1 Systemic Endermologie (action of lymphatic drainage, lipolysis, and depuration) & Local treatment as required & Consideration of eventual surgery with gastric banding & Nonindication of liposculpture In group V1b [varicose disease plus advanced lipodystrophy (LPD)]: & Hygienic and dietary indications & Speciﬁc exercise & Manual lymphatic drainage plus sequential pressure therapy & 1 Endermologie cycles & Mesotherapy & Eventual superﬁcial carboxytherapy & Oral administration of phlebotonics plus antiedematous therapy (phytotherapeutic medicines) & Foot control & Use of elastic hoses graduated in mmHg & Surgical treatment/laser/varicose pathology sclerosants In group V3 (soft lymphedema): The patient should be referred to a specialist for a clinical and instrumental phlebo-lymphological diagnosis: & Hygienic and dietary indications & Speciﬁc exercise & 1 Endermologie cycles & Carboxytherapy & Mesotherapy & Eventual sequential pressure therapy plus manual lymphatic drainage & Oral administration of phlebotonics plus antiedematous connective therapy (Cellulase 1 Gold ) & Foot control & Use of semirigid bandages alternated in cycles with elastic hoses In group V5 (lipolymphedema), clinical and instrumental (echodoppler) phlebo- lymphological diagnosis is necessary: & Hygienic and dietary indications & Exercise & 1 Endermologie cycles & Leg mesotherapy & Abdomen and thigh carboxytherapy & Antiedematous and connective therapy & Foot control & Eventually, use of elastic hoses graduated in mmHg BIMED–TCD & 125 In group F1a (initial ﬂaccidity plus mild lipodystrophy): & 1 Endermologie treatment (action of toniﬁcation and vascularization) & Occasional mesotherapy and carboxytherapy & Ultrasonic endolifting (internal ultrasound without suction) & Foot control In group F2 (advance ﬂaccidity): & Exercise & Use of active skin cosmetics & 1 Endermologie treatment (action of toniﬁcation and vascularization) & Nonindication for mesotherapy and carboxytherapy. Thus, a scientiﬁc cost–beneﬁt evaluation is possible, and indications of effectiveness are available. Certainly, this classiﬁcation may and should be improved. Returning to our initial example of a patient coded as G1a/S1/L2V5/A2ab, we realize at once that she belongs to the gynoid type, complains of subjective—therefore Mediterranean—symptoms, shows an increase of insulin and estrogen receptors in the lower limbs and glutei, and is probably affected by veno-lymphatic insufﬁciency. The patient complains of pain in both legs but comes to consul- tation because ‘‘she dislikes her appearance. Slight overweight is observed, outside of the obesity range. The patient may be controlled through mild diet and later maintenance diet. Lipedema is also detected with advanced lipodystrophic alterations plus lipolymphedema, in full accordance with local endocrine metabolic alterations and veno-lymphatic insufﬁciency (in the absence of vascular insufﬁciency, symptoms may be attributed to foot pathology with local hypoxic dysmetabolic paresthesia or to psycho-emotional dysfunction). Additionally, genuine adiposity may be detected in the abdomen and legs. After examining for oxidative stress and prescribing cleans- ing, localized liposculpture should be attempted followed by rehabilitation focused on 126 & BACCI AND LEIBASCHOFF 1 carboxytherapy and Endermologie techniques applied in combination with drainage plus stimulation and leg mesotherapy. The code N2a/Ia/L1/A2, for example, describes an ideal normal type patient showing mild lipodystrophic alterations plus initial lipedema and genuine culotte de cheval. Localized adiposity may also be detected so that the appropriate prescription is diet and Endermolo- 1 gie techniques (vascularization plus stimulation) plus localized liposculpture. Similarly, the code G1a/Mb/L2/Ab refers to a symptomatic gynoid patient who expresses aesthetic motivations and shows lipedema accompanied by lipodystrophy, though no lipolymphedema may be detected in lower limbs (i. Localized adiposity of the lipedemic type is also noticeable in the legs. The patient might be included in the traditional classiﬁcation for Dercum’s syndrome (Fig. A comprehensive treat- ment should include speciﬁc therapies described for each group; in this case: & Endocrine-hormonal investigations & Oxidative conditions test & High-protein diet for a short time & Oral administration of phytotherapeutic medicines Figure 11 This case can be classiﬁed as Dercum’s syndrome, a typical lipolymphedema with lipodystrophy caused by a constitutional endocrine–metabolic syndrome. BIMED–TCD & 127 & Carboxytherapy & 1 Endermologie (drainage and liporeduction) & 1 Eventual lipolymphosuction with a postsurgical treatment with Endermologie & Calf mesotherapy & BIMED–TCD CLASSIFICATION No literature provides an exact blueprint for the visual and quantitative classiﬁcation of cellulite. Bacci, in 2001, with the purpose of organizing a vast, controlled, and randomized study on the diagnosis and treatment of the cellulite, created a clinical classiﬁcation that resulted in a numeric value that could be analyzed by computer. Therefore, the following classiﬁcation is proposed: T, Thermatographic; C, Clinical; D, Symptomatic (TCD). The ﬁnal result will be a numerical conclusion relating to the variations gathered according to a basic classiﬁcation carried out with the TCD code (Albergati/Curri, mod- iﬁed Bacci–self-assessment) supplemented by a subjective clinical evaluation.
Patients are more likely to have hepatosplenomegaly and lym- phadenopathy at presentation D buy avana 50 mg low cost. Maintenance chemotherapy generally lasts 1 to 3 years E order avana 50mg mastercard. The Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) variant is more resistant to standard treatment Key Concept/Objective: To know the differences between AML and ALL in adults AML accounts for about 80% of acute leukemias in adults and is most likely to present with hemorrhage or infection generic avana 200mg with amex. Standard induction therapy with cytarabine and daunoru- bicin (7 + 3 regimen) is followed by consolidation chemotherapy but generally no long- term maintenance regimen buy 50mg avana mastercard. ALL typically presents with constitutional symptoms (fatigue cheap 50 mg avana fast delivery, weight loss, night sweats), and organomegaly and lymphadenopathy are more likely to be present on exam. Because CNS involvement occurs in 5% of patients with ALL, CNS pro- phylaxis is a standard part of treatment, as is maintenance chemotherapy. Ph+ ALL is less responsive to standard chemotherapy regimens. A 47-year-old man presents with gum bleeding, rectal bleeding, and fatigue. He is found to have dis- seminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Which of the following conditions would best fit with this clinical presentation? Ph+ ALL Key Concept/Objective: To recognize acute promyelocytic leukemia as a distinct disease with a significant associated complication DIC is frequently found at presentation or soon after induction of chemotherapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (FAB M3). Hemorrhage secondary to DIC is responsible for a high pretreatment or early-treatment mortality. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is unique in its response to all- 42 BOARD REVIEW trans-retinoic acid, which is used alone or in combination with more standard regimens for induction. A 55-year-old man presents to your clinic with complaints of generalized fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal discomfort with early satiety. On physical examination, the patient is afebrile and appears thin. His abdominal examination is notable for massive splenomegaly. No adenopathy is identified, and the liver is of normal size. A complete blood count (CBC) reveals a neutrophilic leukocytosis, and you suspect chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Which of the following statements regarding CML is false? CML is a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) and represents a clonal disorder of the pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell B. The CBC often reveals thrombocytosis, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and basophilia C. The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) is characteristic of CML and is a poor prognostic sign D. The three main phases of CML are the chronic phase, the accelerated phase, and the blast phase Key Concept/Objective: To understand the pathogenesis and clinical course of CML MPDs represent clonal disorders of the pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell and include CML, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, myeloid metaplasia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis. CML accounts for 15% of all cases of leukemia in adults. Males are affected more often than females, and the median age at presentation is 45 to 55 years. CML is caused by the transforming capability of the protein products resulting from the Ph translocation t(9;22). Up to 95% of patients with CML express Ph, which results from a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22. Patients with CML who do not have Ph translocation have a significantly worse prognosis than do patients who test positive for the bcr-abl gene. CML is characterized by expansion of myeloid progenitor cells at various stages of their maturation, by the premature release of these cells into the circulation, and by their tendency to home to extramedullary sites. Symptoms at presentation reflect the increase in mass and turnover of the leukemic cells. Patients may complain of lethargy and weakness, night sweats, and weight loss. Occasionally, the spleen enlarges, causing an increase in abdominal girth and abdominal discomfort.