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These patients create less of a concern for intracranial swelling or raised pressure purchase 3.03 mg yasmin with amex, although all the other ICU management © 2005 by CRC Press LLC issues including preventing infection buy yasmin 3.03mg overnight delivery, treatment of seizures and electrolyte abnor- malities cheap 3.03mg yasmin amex, airway protection, and feeding arise. While some patients with severe DAI recover, they commonly require tracheostomy and gastrostomy for long-term care. Many long-term comatose patients in this category are maintained for years, often in low-functioning or vegetative states. The second basis is active treatment of patients with marginal brain function, immediate brain swelling or hemorrhage after vascular occlusion, and intraoperative complications. Essentially all patients undergoing open brain procedures are monitored at least overnight in an ICU due to the large number of problems that can arise. For example, patients with severe SAH may not be immediately amenable for either direct neurosurgical intervention, such as aneurysm clipping or endovascular treatment (see Chapter 12), but may still have severe deficits and require ICP monitoring, blood pressure, and volume management (such as hyperdynamic therapy). Common forms of stroke include ischemic stroke, such as major coronary artery occlusion, after which patients often develop severe brain swelling. This swelling can in some cases be ameliorated with ICP monitoring and occasionally by decom- pressive craniectomy. Deep intracerebral hemorrhages due to hypertension often also result in severe neurological deficits requiring intensive management, secondary medical problems, and hydrocephalus. All of these possibilities represent common reasons to stabilize and treat patients in a neuro- science ICU setting. For example, terminal care in patients with poor prognosis or brain death does not require ICU care, nor would patients in a permanent vegetative state who are stable. Also, physiologically stable patients may not require an ICU environment, because no critical treatment issues may exist. In most hospitals ICU are a scarce resource, and such a resource must be managed wisely, considering which patients may optimally benefit from expensive care and resources. Most neuroscience ICUs use detailed flowsheets to help monitor neurological func- tion, including assessment on the Glasgow coma scale for brain function, spinal cord function, and particularly detailed responses to environmental stimuli. Intensive neurological exams are usually performed at least every 2 hours by nurses specialized in neurological assessment. Detection of specific neurological events including sei- zures, herniation syndromes, changes in levels of consciousness and awareness, and spinal cord functions is critical. A key point is that detection of worsening may imply a cascade of pathological alterations that may be prevented by prompt treat- ment and management. In addition to neurological assessment, excellent general medical care is also critical and should include assessment of airway problems, need for continued intubation, nutrition, and methods of diet supplementation.
The protein anabolic actions The hypothalamus releases GnRH in a pulsatile are probably mediated by an interaction with the an- manner buy generic yasmin 3.03mg on-line. The pulsating levels of GnRH from the pituitary modulate LH and FSH re- PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS lease safe yasmin 3.03mg. Androgens and estrogens can modulate go- nadotropin release at both the hypothalamus and pitu- Androgens produce both virilizing and protein anabolic itary levels cheap yasmin 3.03mg with visa. The virilizing actions of testos- modulate GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude at the terone include irreversible effects that occur during em- hypothalamus level while simultaneously modifying pi- bryogenesis, that is, those that induce differentiation of tuitary responses to GnRH by inﬂuencing GnRH re- the central nervous system and male reproductive ceptor levels in the pituitary. Increases in GnRH recep- tracts, and the excitatory actions at puberty that are 728 VII DRUGS AFFECTING THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM OH O O O Testosterone Andostenedione O O O O H H 5 -Andostanedione 5 -Andostanedione O O HO HO H H Etiocholanolone (5 -androsterone) Androsterone (5 -androsterone) FIGURE 63. In addi- and lengthening of the vocal cords, and a signiﬁcant tion to the effects on male reproductive function, an- (30%) increase in the rate of long bone growth. The degree of virilization clude the growth of male-pattern facial, pubic, and body and timing of puberty also affect peak bone density and hair, the lower vocal pitch resulting from a thickening risk of osteoporosis in males. The protein anabolic actions of androgens on bone and skeletal muscle are responsible for the larger stature of males than females. They also have several of Androgens other actions, not necessarily associated with maleness, Virilizing effects such as lymphoid tissue regression during puberty. Gonadotropin regulation Spermatogenesis Sexual dysfunction CLINICAL USES Sexual restoration and development Protein anabolic effects The primary therapeutic use of androgens is as replace- Increased bone density ment therapy in testicular deﬁciency (Table 63. Although re- 63 Androgens, Antiandrogens, and Anabolic Steroids 729 placement therapy is the primary use of androgen ad- of puberty. The eunuchoid phenotype is caused by ministration, these hormones also are used and abused absent or deﬁcient androgenic induction of the undif- for their protein anabolic effects. Causes of this con- Hypogonadism dition include deﬁcient testicular steroidogenesis (both congenital and acquired), target organ androgen insen- Testicular failure may occur before puberty and present sitivity syndromes (receptor defects, 5 -reductase deﬁ- as delayed puberty and the eunuchoid phenotype, or af- ciency), deﬁcient pituitary LH and FSH secretion, or ter puberty, with the development of infertility, impo- deﬁcient hypothalamic GnRH production. Androgen tence, or decreased libido in otherwise fully virilized replacement therapy is effective only when the end or- males. The source of hypogonadism can be testicular, as gans are sensitive to androgens, so certain forms of occurs in primary hypogonadism, or it may result from pseudohermaphroditism are unresponsive to androgen abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, as in replacement. The compounds most effective in bringing about masculinization are the long-acting enanthate, cypionate, Prepuberal Hypogonadism or propionate esters of testosterone; these preparations Prepuberal hypogonadism is often unsuspected until a require intramuscular injection. Recently effective cuta- delay in male sexual development is noticed at the time neous forms of androgens have become available and may be equally effective. Owing to inconsistent drug ab- sorption, oral androgen preparations do not result in full sexual development in prepuberal hypogonado- TABLE 63. Primarily for Androgen Replacement Postpuberal Hypogonadism Agent (trade name) Postpuberal hypogonadism is also classiﬁed as either primary hypogonadism or secondary hypogonadism.
Aicardi syndrome is Aicardi syndrome is characterized by abnormalities named after Dr yasmin 3.03 mg low cost. Jean Aicardi purchase 3.03mg yasmin, who first described this of the connection between the left and right hemispheres syndrome in 1965 buy 3.03mg yasmin with mastercard. It is these abnormalities of the brain, Agenesis of Corpus Callosum (ACC) with Chorioretinal including the corpus callosum, that lead to the observable Abnormality because of the associated abnormal forma- symptoms of seizures and developmental delays. Aicardi tion of the connection between the right and left hemi- syndrome may also be complicated by brain tumors, spheres of the brain (the corpus callosum) and abnormal benign tumors of the scalp (lipomas) and cancer of the development of the choroid and retinal sections of the blood vessels (angiosarcoma). The onset of infantile spasms in individuals affected The eye is composed of three layers: the sclera, the with Aicardi syndrome is generally observed between the choroid, and the retina. It is at this time that the outer coat of the eyeball; it is unaffected in individuals final connections (neural synapses) are made in the GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 39 ing of muscles. An absence seizure is a brief seizure with an accompanying loss of awareness or Absence seizure—A brief seizure with an accom- alertness such as a staring spell. A grand mal seizure is characterized by a loss of consciousness, a Choroid—A vascular membrane that covers the loss of bladder control, generalized muscle contractions, back of the eye between the retina and the sclera and tongue biting. Grand mal seizures are also followed and serves to nourish the retina and absorb scat- by a period of lethargy, confusion, and deep breathing tered light. Focal seizure—A seizure that causes a brief and Instances of small eyes (micropthalmia) and missing temporary change in movement, sensation, or structures of the eye (coloboma) are also common. Grand mal seizure—A seizure that causes a loss of Diagnosis consciousness, a loss of bladder control, general- ized muscle contractions, and tongue biting. Aicardi syndrome is generally first diagnosed in affected individuals between the ages of three and five Infantile spasms—The form of grand mal or focal months. It is at this age that the final connections in the seizures experienced by infants prior to the devel- brain are completed. These spasms are akin and deep breathing following a grand mal seizure to seizures in older children. Prenatal diagnosis is Retinal lacunae—Small abnormal cavities or holes not yet available, but connection to the Xp22. These infantile spasms are a Treatment and management form of the full seizures that are experienced by older Treatment of an individual with Aicardi syndrome affected individuals. A seizure is the result of sudden generally consists of seizure management, vision treat- abnormal electrical activity in the brain. This electrical ment for those individuals born with sight or partial activity can result in a wide variety of clinical symptoms sight, and early and continuing intervention programs including muscle twitches; tongue biting; fixed, staring for developmental delays. Because of the severe neuro- eyes; a loss of bladder control resulting in involuntary logical damage, many individuals are unable to chew urination; total body shaking (convulsions); and/or loss and swallow and must be fed with pureed food.
Increase in synaptic concentrations of NE Tricyclic Antidepressants In the late 1950s buy discount yasmin 3.03 mg on-line, imipramine was noted to be effective Desensitization of nerve terminal 2-adrenoceptors for the symptomatic treatment of depression best 3.03 mg yasmin. A number of chemical congeners of imipramine have been synthe- sized and tested for antidepressant properties; they are Increase in neuronal NE release collectively known as TCAs buy 3.03mg yasmin overnight delivery. The TCAs are no longer considered ﬁrst-line agents in the treatment of depres- sion because of their prominent side effects and the need to monitor drug blood levels to avoid toxicity. Further increase in synaptic concentrations of NE Seven TCA drugs are available in the United States for treatment of major depression. Tertiary Desensitization of postsynaptic -adrenoceptors with no change in postsynaptic 1-adrenoceptor sensitivity amines include imipramine (Tofranil), amitriptyline (Elavil), trimipramine (Surmontil), and doxepin (Sin- FIGURE 33. Desipramine (Norpramin), nortriptyline (Pam- Cascade of adaptive changes occurring at norepinephrine elor), and protriptyline (Vivactil) are secondary amines. These latter ﬁndings mon phenomenon after chronic administration of all have added to the attractiveness of this theory. However, clinically effective antidepressants and electroconvul- at noradrenergic synapses with multiple adrenoceptors sive treatment. These observations the same time that synaptic transmission through 2- lend strong support to the hypothesis that enhanced and -adrenoceptors is reduced (Figure 33. The literature also supports the notion of have demonstrated postsynaptic supersensitivity to an interdependence of these two monoamine systems serotonin (5-HT1A) receptor agonists at serotonin in the treatment of depression. The time-dependent synapses, with an associated enhancement of serotoner- changes in the ﬂow of synaptic information through in- gic neurotransmission. The sensitization to 5-HT1A ago- dividual receptor subtypes within the norepinephrine nists is mediated in part by an increase in the density of and serotonin synapses following chronic TCA adminis- postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. A cascade of events leads to altered receptor- mediated physiology of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) synapses of the brain following long-term TCA drug administration. The adaptive changes in synaptic physiology are triggered by selective inhibition of the NE and/or 5-HT neuronal reuptake systems. Accordingly, the postsynaptic ﬂow of information at NE and 5-HT synapses will be reduced through - adrenoceptors but enhanced through 5-HT1A receptors. Although the responsiveness of 1- adrenoceptors remains unchanged, it is likely that transmission through these postsynaptic sites will be enhanced. In this regard, desensitization of 2-adrenoceptors will provide greater concentrations of synaptic NE to activate normosensitive postsynaptic 1-adrenoceptors.