By W. Gelford. Hannibal-LaGrange College. 2018.
PART IX CHAPTER 39: Fertilization purchase zantac 150mg free shipping, Pregnancy buy zantac 150mg otc, and Fetal ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY • 000 Development 000 CHAPTER 31: Endocrine Control Mechanisms 000 Paul F generic zantac 300 mg. Appendix A: Answers to Review Questions 000 CHAPTER 33: The Thyroid Gland 000 Appendix B: Common Abbreviations in Physiology 000 Robert V. Normal Blood, Plasma, or Serum Values inside front cover PREFACE The goal of this second edition of Medical Physiology is to ogy. Special chapters on the blood and the liver are in- provide a clear, accurate, and up-to-date introduction to cluded. Chapters on acid-base regulation, temperature reg- medical physiology for medical students and students in ulation, and exercise discuss these complex, integrated the allied health sciences. The order of presentation of topics follows that function, is key to understanding pathophysiology and of most United States medical school courses in physiol- pharmacology and is essential to the everyday practice of ogy. After the first two chapters, the other chapters can be clinical medicine. This not only reinforces fundamental physiolog- school faculty members who have had many years of ex- ical principles but also demonstrates the relevance of phys- perience teaching physiology and who are experts in their iology to an understanding of numerous medically impor- field. This second edition incorporates many fea- We have purposely avoided discussion of research labora- tures that should aid the student in his or her study of phys- tory methods or historical material because most medical iology: students are too busy to be burdened by such information. The outline at the beginning of each We have also avoided topics that are unsettled, recogniz- chapter gives a preview of the chapter and is a useful ing that new research constantly provides fresh insights study aid. Each chapter starts with a short list of key concepts that the student should understand after Key Changes. The text is easy to read, and topics are developed cases by new contributors, and most illustrations have logically. For example, instead of head- grams help students understand the general underpinnings ing a section “Homeostasis,” the heading is “Homeosta- of physiology. Another key change is the book’s size: It is sis is the maintenance of steady states in the body by co- more compact because of deletions of extraneous material ordinated physiological mechanisms. Key terms are boldfaced upon their first ap- many of the features in the book. The figures have been selected been updated; they are more practical and less research- to illustrate important concepts. Each chapter includes a case study, with ques- show interrelationships between different variables or tions and answers. Lists of com- diagrams, so that students can appreciate the sequence mon abbreviations in physiology and of normal blood val- of events that follow when a factor changes. Each chapter contains one or two physiological concepts, such as homeostasis and cell sig- clinical focus boxes that illustrate the relevance of the naling, in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 covers the cell membrane, physiology discussed in the chapter to an understand- membrane transport, and the cell membrane potential.
Neu- structures must be intact for her to very little the last several days and had ron 1999;22:221–232 buy generic zantac 150 mg. Prin- (B) The primary visual cortex on the significantly affected their ability to ciples of Neural Science trusted zantac 300mg. New right side of her brain meet their obligations for household York: McGraw-Hill zantac 300mg with mastercard, 2000. Cognitive (D) The corpus callosum diagnosis of mania and started her on a neuroscience and the study of memory. A viral infection causes damage to both neurotransmission in Perry E, Walker M, Grace J, Perry R. This damage (A) Cholinergic pathways Acetylcholine in mind: A neurotrans- would cause the patient to exhibit (B) Dopaminergic pathways mitter correlate of consciousness? CASE STUDIES FOR PART II • • • CASE STUDY FOR CHAPTER 4 he indicates that he also may not be hearing as well as he should, but at other times he does not notice any hearing Dizziness problems. He further indicates that he may have had oc- A 35-year-old man consulted his family physician be- casional dizzy spells before the ladder incident, but that cause of some recent episodes of what he described as they now appear to be much more frequent. He was concerned that this complaint might be medication he takes is aspirin for an occasional related to a fall from a stepladder that had occurred the headache. He has no difficulty in following a moving fin- previous month, although his symptoms did not begin ger with his head held stationary, and on the day of the immediately after the incident. He reports no light- the doctor, his symptoms are minimal, and he appears to headedness with moderate and continued exertion. He states that the feeling of Gentle irrigation of his external ear canals with warm dizziness, which also included sensations of nausea water (at approximately 39 C) produces a feeling of dizzi- (without vomiting) and “ringing in the ears,” make him ness and nausea accompanied by nystagmus. The sub- feel as though his surroundings were spinning around jective sensations appeared to be the same for each ear. The episodes, which could last for several days at a He is further evaluated with the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, time, are quite annoying and sufficiently severe to cause and no sensations of vertigo are elicited during the posi- him concern for his safety on the job. However, when he is rapidly rotated (continued) CHAPTER 7 Integrative Functions of the Nervous System 135 in a swivel chair, he reports dizziness that was more se- CASE STUDY FOR CHAPTER 5 vere than his usual symptoms. His physician ad- Upper Motor Neuron Lesion vises him that there may be some appropriate specific A 50-year-old man comes for evaluation of persistent dif- medications for his condition, but he would first like him ficulty using his right arm and leg. The patient was well to try a salt-restricted diet for the next 4 weeks. He also until one month previously when he had abrupt onset of prescribes a mild diuretic.
The increased pulse pressure is distributed V1 V2 V V2 evenly around the same mean arterial pressure buy generic zantac 300mg. The change in volume ( V1) causes the change astolic pressure increases purchase zantac 300mg otc. The same change in volume ( V2) at a higher initial volume causes a change in pressure ( P2) equal to P1 buy zantac 150 mg low cost. The Effect of Changes in Cardiac Output Balanced by change in volume ( V1) causes the change in pressure ( P1). Mean arte- same change in volume ( V2) at a higher initial volume causes a rial pressure may remain constant despite a change in car- much larger change in pressure ( P2). A good exam- 254 PART IV BLOOD AND CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY A Exercise ↑SV ↑HR ↓SVR ↑CO B ↑Pulse pressure (↑systolic ↓diastolic) Little change in mean arterial pressure FIGURE 15. Heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV) increase, resulting in an increase in car- diac output (CO). However, dilation of resistance vessels in skeletal muscle lowers systemic vascular resistance (SVR), balanc- ing the increase in cardiac output and causing little change in C mean arterial pressure. In this new steady state, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures are all higher. The increase in mean arterial pressure (to 107 mm Hg) results in a decrease in arterial compliance (see FIGURE 15. The increase in pulse pressure results from both on arterial pressure with constant cardiac out- higher stroke volume and decreased arterial compliance. When cardiac output is held constant by lowering heart rate, there is no change in mean arterial pressure (93 mm Hg) and systolic pressure increases while diastolic pressure de- Effect of Increased SVR. B, Effect of increased heart rate and stroke volume with of the larger arteries transiently decreases. If cardiac output no change in mean arterial pressure because of decreased SVR. Pulse pressure increases around an unchanged mean arte- until it is sufficient to drive the blood out of the larger ves- rial pressure, and systolic pressure is higher and diastolic pressure sels and into the smaller vessels at the same rate as it enters is lower than the control. Cardiac output, mean arterial (and mean arterial pressure) arterial compliance is lower, pressure, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and pulse pressure are all increased. The net result is an increase in mean arterial, systolic, and diastolic pressures. The extent of the increase in pulse pressure depends on how much arterial ple of this is dynamic exercise (e. The increase in cardiac output Outflow is caused by increases in both heart rate and stroke volume.
Memory cells thus account for one of the primary Soluble factors Lysozyme discount zantac 300 mg with visa, complement buy zantac 150 mg with mastercard, Antibodies tenets of immunity: Resistance is increased after initial ex- acute phase proteins buy zantac 300 mg, posure to the infectious agent. Long-term immunity to interferon, cytokines many viruses—such as influenza, measles, smallpox, and Cells Phagocytic leukocytes, T cells, B cells polio—can be induced by vaccination with a killed or mu- NK Cells tant form of the pathogen. T cells and their products may act directly or exert their effects in concert with other effector cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages. The immune responses mediated by antibodies and T lymphocytes differ in several important respects. In general, antibodies are known to induce immediate responses to antigens and, thereby, provoke immediate hypersensitivity reactions. For example, allergy or anaphylactic hypersensi- tivity results when a certain type of antibody on the surface of fixed mast cells binds to its specific antigen. Antibody binding leads to the release of histamine and other media- tors of the allergic response from intracellular granules. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions also occur when circulating antibodies bind antigen in the tissues, thereby forming immune complexes that activate the complement system, a group of at least nine distinct proteins that circu- late in plasma. A cascade of events occurs when the first protein recognizes preformed immune complexes, a large cross-linked mesh of antigen molecules bound to antibod- ies. In addition, complement can be activated when one of the proteins is exposed to the cell wall of certain bacteria. Initiation of this system results in edema, an influx of acti- vated phagocytic cells (chemotaxis), and local inflamma- tory changes. In contrast to the rapid onset of biological responses when antigen binds antibody, the consequences of T cell activation are not noticeable until 24 to 48 hours after antigen challenge. During this time, the T cells that initially recognize the anti- gen secrete factors that recruit and activate other cells (e. In this model, only the clone of lympho- cells possessing the antigen, or the surrounding tissue. A com- cytes that has the unique ability to recognize the antigen of inter- mon example is the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction est proliferates, generating memory cells as well as effector cells specific to the inducing stimulus. This proliferation is initiated by to purified protein derivative (PPD), a response used to assess the interaction of a specific recognition lymphocyte (afferent prior exposure to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. Cells then proliferate and differentiate into under the skin of sensitive individuals, PPD elicits the famil- either memory cells, which potentiate subsequent responses to iar inflammatory reaction characterized by local erythema the inciting antigen, or plasma cells, which secrete antibody. Cell-mediated immune responses, while slow to de- velop, are potent and versatile.