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Nonetheless generic 10mg claritin otc, they may share with other chemicals the production of adverse effects at excessive exposures order 10 mg claritin fast delivery. Because the consumption of balanced diets is consis- tent with the development and survival of humankind over many millennia buy discount claritin 10 mg line, there is less need for the large uncertainty factors that have been used for the risk assessment of nonessential chemicals. In addition, if data on the adverse effects of nutrients are available primarily from studies in human populations, there will be less uncertainty than is associated with the types of data available on nonessential chemicals. There is no evidence to suggest that nutrients consumed at the recom- mended intake (the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake) present a risk of adverse effects to the general population. For cases in which adverse effects have been associated with intake only from supple- 1It is recognized that possible exceptions to this generalization relate to specific geochemical areas with excessive environmental exposures to certain trace ele- ments (e. The effects of nutrients from fortified foods or supplements may differ from those of naturally occurring con- stituents of foods because of the chemical form of the nutrient, the timing of the intake and amount consumed in a single bolus dose, the matrix supplied by the food, and the relation of the nutrient to the other con- stituents of the diet. Nutrient requirements and food intake are related to the metabolizing body mass, which is also at least an indirect measure of the space in which the nutrients are distributed. This relation between food intake and space of distribution supports homeostasis, which main- tains nutrient concentrations in that space within a range compatible with health. However, excessive intake of a single nutrient from supplements or fortificants may compromise this homeostatic mechanism. Such elevations alone may pose risks of adverse effects; imbalances among the nutrients may also be possible. These reasons and those discussed previously sup- port the need to include the form and pattern of consumption in the assessment of risk from high nutrient or food component intake. Consideration of Variability in Sensitivity The risk assessment model outlined in this chapter is consistent with classical risk assessment approaches in that it must consider variability in the sensitivity of individuals to adverse effects of nutrients or food compo- nents. A discussion of how variability is dealt with in the context of nutri- tional risk assessment follows. Physiological changes and common conditions associated with growth and maturation that occur during an individual’s lifespan may influence sensitivity to nutrient toxicity. For example, sensitivity increases with declines in lean body mass and with the declines in renal and liver function that occur with aging; sensitivity changes in direct relation to intestinal absorp- tion or intestinal synthesis of nutrients; sensitivity increases in the new- born infant because of rapid brain growth and limited ability to secrete or biotransform toxicants; and sensitivity increases with decreases in the rate of metabolism of nutrients. During pregnancy, the increase in total body water and glomerular filtration results in lower blood levels of water-soluble vitamins dose for dose, and therefore results in reduced susceptibility to potential adverse effects. However, in the unborn fetus this may be offset by active placental transfer, accumulation of certain nutrients in the amni- otic fluid, and rapid development of the brain. Examples of life stage groups that may differ in terms of nutritional needs and toxicological sen- sitivity include infants and children, the elderly, and women during preg- nancy and lactation. The model described below accounts for the normal expected variability in sensitivity, but it excludes subpopulations with extreme and distinct vulnerabilities. Such subpopulations consist of individuals needing medical supervision; they are better served through the use of public health screening, product labeling, or other individual- ized health care strategies.
Step 3: Provide evidence As health-care providers buy 10 mg claritin visa, numbers are an important consideration in our decision-making process buy claritin 10mg visa. While some may want the results this way generic 10 mg claritin mastercard, many patients do not want results to be that speciﬁc or in numerical form. As a general rule, patients tend to want few speciﬁc numbers, although patients’ preferences range from not wanting to know more than a brief statement or the “bottom line” of what the evidence shows to wanting to know as much as is available about the actual study results. Check the patient’s preference for information by ask- ing: “Do you want to hear speciﬁc numbers or only general information? Another way to start is by giving minimal information and allowing the patient to ask for more, or follow this basic information by asking the patient whether more speciﬁc infor- mation is desired. Previous experiences with the patient can also assist in deter- mining how much information to discuss. Presenting the information There are a number of ways to communicate information to patients and under- standing the patient’s desires can help determine the best way to do this. The ﬁrst approach is to use conceptual terms, such as “most patients” or “almost every patient” or “very few patients. A second approach is to use general numerical terms, such as “half the patients” or “1 in 100 patients. While these are the most common verbal approaches, both conceptual and numerical rep- resentations can be graphed, either with rough sketches or stick ﬁgures. In a few clinical situations, more reﬁned means of communicating evidence have been 204 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine developed, such as decision aid programs available for prostate cancer screen- ing. The patient answers questions at a computer about his preferences regard- ing prostate cancer screening and treatment. These preferences then determine a recommendation for that patient about prostate cancer screening using a decision tree similar to the ones that will be discussed in Chapter 30. Unfortu- nately, these types of programs are not yet widely developed for most decision making. The quality of the evidence also needs to be communicated in addition to a discussion of the risks and beneﬁts of treatment. For example, if the highest level of evidence found was an evidence-based review from a trusted source, the qual- ity of the evidence being communicated is higher and discussions can be done with more conﬁdence. If there is only poor quality of evidence, such as would be available only from a case series, the provider will be less conﬁdent in the quality of the evidence and should convey more uncertainty.
In some populations purchase claritin 10mg free shipping, fat intakes are very low and body weight and health are maintained by high intakes of carbohydrate (Bunker et al discount 10mg claritin fast delivery. Clearly generic claritin 10mg line, humans have the ability to adapt metabolically to a wide spectrum of fat-to-carbohydrate intake ratios. In the short term, an isocaloric diet can be either very high or very low in fat with no obvious differences in health. The critical ques- tion therefore is, Are there optimal fat-to-carbohydrate ratios for long- term health, and if so, what are they? One potential concern over fat restriction is the potential for reduction in total energy intake, which is of particular relevance for infants and children, as well as during pregnancy when there is a relatively high energy requirement for both energy expen- diture and for fetal development. These changes include a reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol con- centration, an increase in serum triacylglycerol concentration, and higher responses in postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. In fact, some popula- tions that consume low fat diets and in which habitual energy intake is relatively high have a low prevalence of these chronic diseases (Falase et al. Conversely, in sedentary popu- lations, such as that of the United States where overweight and obesity are common, high carbohydrate, low fat diets induce changes in lipoprotein and glucose/insulin metabolism in ways that could raise risk for chronic diseases (see Chapter 11). Available prospective studies have not concluded whether low fat, high carbohydrate diets provide a health risk in the North American population. Chronic nonspecific diarrhea in children has been suggested as a potential adverse effect of low fat diets. It is considered a disorder of intes- tinal motility that may improve with an increase in dietary fat intake in order to slow gastric emptying and alter intestinal motility (Cohen et al. Detailed discussion on fat intake and risk of chronic disease is pro- vided in Chapter 11. Because adipose tissue lipids in free-living, healthy adults contain about 10 percent of total fatty acids as linoleic acid, biochemical and clinical signs of essential fatty acid deficiency do not appear during dietary fat restriction or malabsorption when they are accompanied by an energy deficit. In this situation, release of linoleic acid and small amounts of arachidonic acid from adipose tissue reserves may prevent development of essential fatty acid deficiency. However, during parenteral nutrition with dextrose solutions, insulin concentrations are high and mobilization of adipose tissue is prevented, resulting in develop- ment of the characteristic signs of essential fatty acid deficiency. Studies on patients given fat-free parenteral feeding have provided great insight into defining levels at which essential fatty acid deficiency may occur. In rapidly growing infants, feeding with milk containing very low amounts of n-6 fatty acids results in characteristic signs of an essential fatty acid deficiency and elevated plasma triene:tetraene ratios (see “n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio”). When dietary essential fatty acid intake is inadequate or absorption is impaired, tissue concentrations of arachidonic acid decrease, inhibition of the desaturation of oleic acid is reduced, and synthesis of eicosatrienoic acid from oleic acid increases. The characteristic signs of deficiency attrib- uted to the n-6 fatty acids are scaly skin rash, increased transepidermal water loss, reduced growth, and elevation of the plasma ratio of eicosatrienoic acid:arachidonic acid (20:3n-9:20:4n-6) to values greater than 0. In addition to the clinical signs mentioned above, essential fatty acid deficiency in special populations has been linked to hematologic dis- turbances and diminished immune response (Bistrian et al. Further discussion on this topic is included in “Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group—n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.