By U. Mufassa. University of Southern Indiana. 2018.
The etiology of traumatic and constitutional shoulder Clinical features order vasodilan 20mg on-line, diagnosis dislocations will be addressed jointly since constitutional Acute shoulder dislocation factors usually play a role in adolescents even in the pres- With an initial shoulder dislocation it is usually difficult to ence of adequate trauma buy vasodilan 20 mg amex. This presupposes that recur- establish whether predisposing factors are present or not discount 20 mg vasodilan with visa. Often the opposite side will also dislocate whether an abnormal trauma producing substantial de- at a later stage following a traumatic dislocation. An anterior shoulder dislocation is pre- can occur at a later date even after a genuine traumatic dominantly caused by this movement direction, whereas dislocation. If the dislocation can be first dislocation: reduced spontaneously, it must be assumed that predispos- ▬ Lesions of the anterior glenoid rim: Small shell-shaped ing factors play a significant role. On the other hand, if the tears (Bankart lesion) or large shear fragments of dislocation cannot be reduced without medical assistance, the socket. The AP x-ray of the shoulder, and also the ity the indentation is usually located on the posterior Y-view ( Chapter 3. The humeral head is always in a caudal position, Moreover, an anterior dislocation can often be accom- regardless of whether the dislocation is in an anterior or panied by tearing of the ligaments with the glenoid posterior direction. As a result, the dislocation is always labrum, even without bone fragments. The situation is even clearer on the Y-view, which shows the glenoid from above. Ad- The following constitutional predisposing factors also ap- ditional imaging procedures are not indicated for the ply: acute form. The direction of movement at the time of the dislocation should be established. The shoulder should then Conservative treatment be examined meticulously ( Chapter 3. As may be concluded from the above statements, the deci- 3 The examination for recurrent or voluntary shoulder sion to operate should be made with extreme caution. It dislocations must include the following: should, in fact, be considered only for a recurrent disloca- ▬ palpation, tion that was originally clearly traumatic and whose cor- ▬ investigation of the range of motion, responding lesions (Bankart lesion, Hill-Sachs groove) are ▬ glenohumeral translation, identifiable on the CT or MRI scan. Much more important is conserva- During the palpation we look for painful sites in the area of tive treatment with consistent muscle training. The range of motion Antonio training program« is particularly suitable for this must be investigated carefully so as to avoid provoking any purpose (⊡ Fig.
Clinically the patients will present with lumbar back pain buy vasodilan 20 mg free shipping, occasionally an exaggerated lumbar lordosis in the area of slipping 20mg vasodilan mastercard, and hamstring tightness cheap vasodilan 20mg mastercard. Pain is generally elicited with forward bending and pressure on the spinous processes of L4 and L5. There may or may not be neurologic Adolescence and puberty 88 ﬁndings of sciatic stretch in the lower extremities. Clinical suspicion should prompt radiographic examination to reveal the spondylolytic defect, or true spondylolisthesis. Radionucleotide imaging currently is the most desirous means of establishing a diagnosis of spondylolysis. Computed tomography (CT) scanning can be useful in further delineating the extent of the defect and in following any potential healing of the defect in those cases of “acquired” stress fracture. In general, conservative back programs are used for minimal degrees of slipping. Occasionally spinal orthotics are used and surgical stabilization or reduction of the degree of the slipping may be necessary for more severe Figure 5. The head to neckrelationship in acute slipped capital femoral degrees of spondylolisthesis or chronic epiphysis. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, is a disorder of puberty characterized by slipping (movement) of the femoral head off the femoral neck. The femoral head ultimately migrates into a position of posterior–inferior displacement relative to the femoral neck. Lateral radiograph demonstrating bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Proponents of the mechanical theory believe that excessive body weight, seen commonly in this condition, wears out the ability of the physis to withstand the mechanical forces applied to the growth plate. By overloading, the growth plate slowly or abruptly yields to excessive body mass, resulting in slipping of the head off the femoral neck. A contrasting hypothesis suggests that 89 Slipped capital femoral epiphysis the growth plate is weakened, due to a delicate imbalance between the hormones of puberty, coupled with an oblique shape to the growth plate, and excessive body mass, leading to gradual or abrupt slipping of the femoral head. This theory suggests that there is a basic hormonal imbalance at puberty that weakens the growth plate as a predilection to slipping. Slipping usually is seen in females between 10 and 15 years of age or in males generally between 12 and 16 years of age.
A sudden palpable and/or audible snapping that occurs with flexion and/or extension of one of the digits during range of motion testing is indicative of “trigger finger order vasodilan 20mg fast delivery,” which is generally caused by a fibrotic enlargement of the tendon that causes it to fail to glide smoothly through its pulley system and causes it to catch and give way as it moves in and out of the proximal sheath order 20 mg vasodilan amex. Palpate the anatomic snuffbox buy cheap vasodilan 20mg line, which is the small depression imme- diately distal and slightly dorsal to the radial styloid process (Photo 1). Tenderness over the radial styloid may signify De Quervain’s tenosynovitis. De Quervain’s tenosynovitis is inflammation of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons. To further test for De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, per- form the Finklestein test by instructing the patient to make a fist with the thumb adducted and tucked inside of the other fingers. The exam- iner then stabilizes the forearm with one hand and deviates the wrist to the ulnar side with the other (Photo 2). If this maneuver produces pain, the patient has a pos- itive Finklestein’s test and may have De Quervain’s tenosynovitis. If “skier’s thumb” is suspected, radiographs should be obtained to rule out the possibility of a fracture. Once a fracture has been ruled out, test the integrity of the ulnar collateral ligament of the first metacar- pophalangeal joint. This is done by having the patient put the forearm in the neutral position—midway between supination and pronation. The examiner then uses a thumb and index finger to stabilize the patient’s first metacarpal. The examiner uses the thumb and index finger of the 54 Musculoskeletal Diagnosis Photo 2. The tunnel of Guyon is formed by the pisiform bone, the hook of the hamate, and pisohamate ligament. The tunnel of Guyon is a common site of ulnar nerve entrapment and injury, potentially resulting in numbness, tingling, and weakness in the ulnar nerve distribution of the fourth and fifth digits. If a compression neu- ropathy exists, the tunnel will be notably tender (Photo 3). Palpable bony nodules in the distal inter- phalangeal joints are called “Heberden’s nodes,” and are indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. Swan-neck deformity, in which the proximal inter- phalangeal (PIP) joint is hyperextended and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint is flexed, is also indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. A bouton- niere deformity, in which there is hyperflexion at the PIP and hyperex- tension at the DIP, is also characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis. Next, test for the integrity of the patient’s flexor digitorum superfi- cialis and flexor digitorum profundus.
Irina Dunn1 The objectives of this chapter are to understand how to: • avoid duplicate publication • share data in large research teams • use the electronic media appropriately • assess the merit of journals and journal articles Duplicate publication A scientific paper is (1) the first publication of original research results effective 20mg vasodilan, (2) in a form whereby peers of the author can repeat the experiments and test the conclusions buy 20 mg vasodilan with visa, and (3) in a journal or other source document readily available with the scientific community purchase vasodilan 20mg without prescription. Infection and Immunity2 Redundant or duplicate publication occurs when results that are published in one paper substantially overlap with results published in another. Duplicate publication is unnecessary and is usually fraudulent since the authors have given a signed assurance that their work has not been published elsewhere. If you have any related information that is published in or has been submitted to another journal then you should include it when you submit your paper. In this way, it becomes the 147 Scientific Writing editor’s responsibility if the journal accepts a piece of work that proves to be duplicated. If more than 10% of a paper overlaps with another paper, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors3 asks you to send in copies of the other paper so that the editorial panel can make an informed decision about the extent of any duplication of published data. No journal wants to publish papers that duplicate data that are already in press in another journal. If you want to include previous data analyses in your paper, the correct process is to cite them in the reference list. In some cases, secondary publication in another language is justifiable but only with the permission of the journal editor who may impose certain conditions. Most journals specifically ask authors to declare that their data are not published elsewhere and are not under consideration by another journal. These declarations help to prevent violation of copyright laws and to protect readers from being overwhelmed with information that is already in press. It is especially important not to present closely related analyses from the same study to two journals concurrently without disclosure to both journal editors. However, duplicate publication that comes to the notice of an editor will result in a prompt rejection and may result in disciplinary action from your institution or professional body. If the data are already in press, then a notice of duplicate publication may be published in the journal, perhaps without you as the author being given any prior notice. Such notices may also indicate withdrawal of the publication from the journal,5 which means that the article will be tracked by indexing services such as MEDLINE® as withdrawn. Most importantly, some editors have a strict policy of rejecting all future publications from authors who have submitted duplicate data to their journal. Most journals readily give permission for the reproduction of published figures and tables for which they have copyright, provided that the work is formally cited. However, you should be very careful when submitting data that are published in conference proceedings or in similar formats. However, the rules of duplicate publication do not preclude you from submitting a paper that contains data presented as an abstract or oral communication at a scientific meeting or a paper that has been rejected by another journal. It is generally accepted that results presented at scientific meetings in order to elicit peer review are from preliminary analyses and are not published in full. Scientific meetings are organised in order that researchers can exchange information with one other and are not primarily intended as a venue for releasing results to the public.
An optimal adaptation reduces the effort required by the patient to remain in an upright position buy discount vasodilan 20mg on-line, and thus gives him or her to use the up- per limbs in particular more freely (⊡ Fig order vasodilan 20 mg on line. The first step is to stabilize the pelvis by an anatomi- cally shaped cushion order vasodilan 20 mg mastercard. This should maintain the pelvis in an unrotated and horizontal position as a stable basis for the spine and trunk. After the pelvis has been adjusted, the legs should be positioned in an unstressed position. The patient is not held com- A symmetrical position of the legs is not important, nor fortably, even with numerous straps 732 4. In addition, all mus- cles are under increased tension, which accelerates the onset of fatigue. A looser seating position with minimum tone must therefore be attempted, even if any resulting muscle weakness of the patient must be compensated with braces. In accordance with the increased anteversion that is invariably present in these children, the hips are always 4 centered best if the legs are held in a slightly internally rotated position. If trunk stability is inadequate, lateral stability can be provided with an additional back cushion or back section. The side supports that hold the trunk must be arranged asymmetrically if necessary, although the pelvis must be grasped in a stable position in such cases. A corrective force cannot be exerted either with this back section or with the cushion or molded seat. Aids such as cushions or molded seats are not remotely fitted precisely enough to the body to achieve a corrective effect. A corset will be needed if functional, and especially structural, deformi- ties are present, or if the effect of the back section is inade- quate. Back sections on their own are not very promising, particularly if an abnormal kyphosis is present, and an anatomically shaped back section can be dispensed with once the corset has been adapted. Side supports, on the other hand, may still be needed in order to keep patients with poor balance upright. In small children, a vest that secures the upper body to the back section can replace the corset for a certain period (⊡ Fig. Thanks to correct positioning in the molded seat she is able to > Definition sit in a relaxed manner with just one strap Standing aids are braces that enable patients to stand upright, including those who are incapable of standing. Training in standing is important for all patients who control, standing frames that allow active standing with are unable to stand upright actively. Various braces are osteoporosis, extends the hips and knees, ventilates the available on the market for this purpose.