By M. Mufassa. Barclay College.
Therefore buy olanzapine 7.5mg with visa, we never conclude that changes in one variable cause the other variable to change based on a correlational study buy olanzapine 7.5mg overnight delivery. Instead buy 20mg olanzapine fast delivery, it is enough that we simply describe The Characteristics of Scores 27 how nature relates the variables. Changes in X might cause changes in Y, but we have no convincing evidence of this. That old saying that “You can prove anything with statistics” is totally incorrect! No statistical procedure can prove that one variable causes another variable to change. Think about it: How could some formula written on a piece of paper “know” what causes particular scores to occur in nature? Thus, instead of proof, any research merely provides evidence that supports a partic- ular conclusion. How well the study controls other variables is part of the evidence, as are the statistical results. This evidence helps us to argue for a certain conclusion, but it is not “proof” because there is always the possibility that we are wrong. Al- though participants are always measured, different variables can produce scores that have different underlying mathematical characteristics. The particular mathematical characteristics of the scores also determine which descriptive or inferential procedure to use. Therefore, always pay attention to two important characteristics of the vari- ables: the type of measurement scale involved and whether the scale is continuous or discrete. The Four Types of Measurement Scales Numbers mean different things in different contexts. The meaning of the number 1 on a license plate is different from the meaning of the number 1 in a race, which is differ- ent still from the meaning of the number 1 in a hockey score. The kind of information that a score conveys depends on the scale of measurement that is used in measuring it. There are four types of measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. With a nominal scale, each score does not actually indicate an amount; rather, it is used for identification. The key here is that nominal scores indicate only that one individual is qualitatively different from another, so in research, nominal scores classify or categorize individuals.
Adaptive analysis can be used to provide ﬂexibility to the analysis but the use of such methods requires careful planning and prospective deﬁnition in order to assure that the pivotal trial adequately limits the chance of erroneous conclusions discount olanzapine 2.5mg overnight delivery. Role of Drug Delivery in Personalized Medicine Along with other technologies quality 20 mg olanzapine, reﬁnements in drug delivery will play an important role in the development of personalized medicine purchase 5mg olanzapine otc. One well known example is glu- cose sensors regulating the release of insulin in diabetic patients. Gene therapy, as a sophisticated drug delivery method, can be regulated according to the needs of indi- vidual patients. ChipRx Inc is developing a true “responsive therapeutic device” in which biosensors, electronic feedback and drug/countermeasure release are fully integrated. Repositioning of Drugs for Personalized Medicine Repositioning or repurposing of a drug means its use for an indication other than originally intended. The pharmaceutical industry is exploring this approach because of high failure rate of drugs in development and paucity of new drugs in pipelines. The advantage of repositioning the drug is shortening of development time as the drug has already passed toxicity testing and safety assessment and needs only late stage clinical trials for the new indication. For an approved drug, development of an additional indication may be initiated by feedback from clinicians’ off-label use of the drug. With increasing knowledge of genomic basis of diseases, repositioning may be useful for matching the right drug to the right patient. Gabapentin and pregabalin, originally developed as antiepileptic drugs, are used more often for neuropathic pain. Sildenaﬁl (Viagra) was initially developed and studied for use in hypertension and angina pectoris, for which it was not adequately effective. Observation of penile erection as side effect led to its development for erectile dys- function. Bisphosphonates are a commonly prescribed therapy for osteoporosis and skel- etal metastases. The drugs have also been associated with reduced tumor burden in some patients, but the mechanism is unknown. Universal Free E-Book Store 596 20 Development of Personalized Medicine Production and Distribution of Personalized Medicines With adoption of personalized approaches, there will be changes in production and distribution of pharmaceutical products. Possible scenarios are: • The drug may be manufactured as previously but the amount manufactured may be less due to restricted use to a certain genotype. It is beyond the scope of this report to go into the manufacturing methods, which will obviously need to be modiﬁed for personalized medicines.