By S. Shakyor. Institute of Paper Science and Technology.
The reader must have a working knowledge of the stan- dard therapy and determine if the new intervention is being tried against the best current therapy generic 500 mg keflex. Studies of new antibiotics are often done against an older antibi- otic that is no longer used as standard therapy discount keflex 750 mg mastercard. But cheap 250mg keflex with amex, since the current standard is prevention in the form of inﬂuenza vaccine, the correct study should in fact have been comparing the new drug against the strategy of prevention with vaccine. This is a much more complex study, but would really answer the question posed about the drugs. Any study of a new treatment should be com- pared to the effect of both currently available standard therapies and prevention programs. Effect size The actual results of the measurements showing a difference between groups are given in the results section of a scientiﬁc paper. The effect size, commonly called δ, is the magnitude of the outcome, association, or difference between groups that one observes. It often can be expressed as either an absolute difference or the percentage with the outcome in each group or the event rate. The effect size for outcomes that are dichotomous can be expressed as percentages that achieved the result of interest in each of the groups. When continuous out- comes are evaluated, the mean and standard deviations of two or more groups 114 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine can be compared. A statistical test will then calculate the P value for the difference between the two mean values, and will show the probability that the difference found occurred by chance alone. If the measure is an ordinal number, the median is the measure that should be compared. In that case, special statistical methods can be used to determine the P value for the difference found. The clinically signiﬁcant effect size is the difference that is estimated to be important in clinical practice. It is statistically easier to detect a large effect like one representing a 90% change than a small effect like one representing a 2% change. Therefore, it should be easier to detect a difference which is likely to be clinically important. However, if the sample size is very large, even a small effect size may be detected. This effect size may not be clinically important even though it is statisticallysigniﬁcant.
The conﬁdence formula (conﬁdence = (signal/noise)√ × n) can be written as conﬁdence = (effect size/standard devia- tion) × n best 750mg keflex. According to this formula 750mg keflex, as effect size or sample size increases keflex 500mg with amex, con- ﬁdence increases, thus the power increases. Effect of sample size on power Sample size (n) has the most obvious effect on the power of a study with power increasing in proportion to the square root of the sample size. If the sample size is very large, an experiment is more likely to show statistical signiﬁcance even if there is a small effect size. The smaller the sample size, the harder it is to ﬁnd statistical signiﬁcance even if one is look- ing for a large effect size. Remember the two groups of college psychology stu- dents at the start of this chapter. It turns out, when the scores for the two groups were combined, the results were statistically signiﬁcant. For example, one does a study to ﬁnd out if ibuprofen is good for relieving the pain of osteoarthritis. The results were that patients taking ibuprofen had 50% less pain than those taking placebo. If one then repeats the study and gets exactly the same results with 25 patients in each group, then the result turns out to be statistically signiﬁcant. In the extreme, studies of tens of thousands of patients will often ﬁnd very tiny effect sizes, such as 1% difference or less, to be statistically signiﬁcant. This is the most important reason to use the number needed to treat instead of only P < 0. Two variables with different sample sizes and the most likely have minimal, if any, beneﬁt from the treatment. The area ﬁdence intervals, a larger sample size will lead to narrower 95% conﬁdence under the curves is proportional intervals. The samples on the left with a small sample size are not statistically Effect of effect size on power signiﬁcantly different (p > 0. The ones on the right with Before an experiment is done, effect size is estimated as the difference between a larger sample size have an groups that will be clinically important. The sample size needed to detect the effect size that is statistically predetermined effect size can then be calculated. However, as discussed above, if the sample size is large enough, even a very small effect size may be statistically signiﬁcant but not clinically important. Effect of level of signiﬁcance on power The magnitude of the level of signiﬁcance, α, tells the reader how willing the researchers are to have a result that occurred only by chance.