By Y. Zuben. Skidmore College.
It requires tests are the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for skill and experience on the part of those Children-Revised generic aceon 8mg free shipping, the Wechsler Preschool evaluating individuals’ symptoms and and Primary Scale of Intelligence cheap aceon 8mg without prescription, the interpreting the results of the various tests Stanford-Binet cheap aceon 8mg free shipping, and the Wechsler Adult designed to measure psychological or intel- Intelligence Scale-Revised. Many professionals may The limitations of intelligence testing be involved in testing and evaluation; psy- originate from: chiatrists and clinical psychologists are fre- • the difﬁculty of tapping all aspects of quently involved in the diagnosis of intellectual ability mental disorders. Diagnosis is usually • the individual’s ability to take the test based on information from a variety of dif- • the degree to which the test measures ferent sources. There is considerable individual can be obtained through psychological variability in abilities, however, and results testing. Psychological tests may be used to of intelligence tests, like results of other evaluate intelligence, personality, or forms of psychological tests, must be eval- behavior. Much vide partial information needed for the ac- intelligence testing involves sampling curate diagnosis of a mental condition. No individuals’ intellectual capacity in a vari- single test is adequate to offer a deﬁnitive ety of different spheres. Often, because on cognitive processes, including problem mental disorders affect a variety of func- solving, adaptive thinking, and other tions, several psychological tests that aspects of performance. Tests alone should measure different functions may be nec- not determine a deﬁnitive diagnosis. Mental Status Examination and Intelligence Tests Assessment Through Interviews The term intelligence is difﬁcult to deﬁne. The structured interview is one way in Theoretically, intelligence consists of a num- which the mental functioning of individ- ber of skills and abilities, some of which uals with a suspected mental disorder may cannot be measured. Diagnostic Procedures in Psychiatric Disability 191 Structured interviews provide informa- ical scales that can be useful in the diag- tion regarding individuals’ orientation, nosis of a variety of mental disorders, form and content of thought, speech, ranging from schizophrenia to depression, affect, and degree of insight. Apperception Test, also have criteria on The mental status examination is a spe- which interpretations are based, but they ciﬁc type of structured interview used as are generally more subjective in nature. Such an examination ing individuals to describe vague and am- may be used to detect dementia or im- biguous pictures. There are no right or paired intellectual function, as well as to wrong answers. Although Projective tests may be more time con- some mental status instruments are part suming than are objective tests, and pro- of other instruments that measure func- fessionals who administer them require tional status, a number of short screening special training. As with all other clinical instruments have been devised especially data, the results of personality assessment for the purpose of evaluating mental sta- tests are only part of the total information tus. One widely used mental status test is needed for an accurate diagnosis of a par- the Short Portable Mental Status Question- ticular mental disorder. No matter what naire, which is used to assess orientation, type of test is used, the accuracy of the re- personal history, remote memory, and cal- sults is dependent on individuals’ honesty culation.
That assessment is an ongoing one based on the progress of the game and how application of the rules and the moves by the players stack up at any given time buy generic aceon 2mg line. Indeed order aceon 8 mg with mastercard, they are so essential that a popular saw holds that “any town that won’t support one lawyer buy generic aceon 8 mg online, will always support two. If the lawyer makes a bad impression on others in that universe it hurts the client. It is largely through lawyers that the court and jury will assess you and your adversary, and determine who to favor in various decisions. Lawyers are, in essence, the main strate- gists and tellers of their clients’ stories. Your lawyer is also your guide through the legal labyrinth you must traverse; it is by and through your lawyer that, if you ask the right questions, you will learn the options available to win your case. Defendants in medical malpractice cases typically turn to their liabil- ity insurance company for a lawyer. Usually the carriers can be counted on to provide those they insure with well-qualified attorneys because they share with them the objective of winning. When the carrier informs you about the lawyer or law firm they have in mind to defend you, ask for a resume of the lawyer. Pick up the telephone if the lawyer has not contacted you first, and have a frank discussion about the attorney’s qualifications and experience. Has he ever been on the opposite side of a case against the plaintiff’s attorney and, if so, what happened? Check standard news sources, jury verdicts, and databases of appellate cases to see what you can learn about the attorney. If that should happen to you, if you don’t have a comfortable or confi- dent feeling about your prospective or assigned attorney after confer- ring with him or her, be honest. A good lawyer understands the importance of a positive attorney–client relationship, as does you mal- practice insurer. Trust and confidence are the cornerstones to this, every bit as much as they are essential to the physician–patient relationship. Regrettably, people who would not hesitate to grill a contractor for a prospective home remodel about past projects and references, become 26 Hiestand shy when it comes to selecting counsel for representation that could affect their careers. Don’t make that mistake; it is much more difficult to switch lawyers in the middle of litigation because of a bad initial selection than it is to take the time to be as reasonably sure as you can be that you have chosen the best person to represent you. Martindale- Hubbell is a quick source of basic biographical information about law- yers. Newspaper articles and electronic databases of information mentioning the lawyers involved in published opinions and jury ver- dicts are other sources of useful information. You are not required to accept whatever attorney is recommended to you, no more than your carrier is required to accept and pay for any attorney you may like but who knows little or nothing about medical malpractice. You and your professional liability insurer should, because you have the same interest in achieving the most favorable outcome for you, be able to agree on a good attorney, one with the education and experience best suited for your needs.
It permits the passage of fecal material through The large and dense liver order aceon 2 mg on-line, located in the upper right quad- the umbilicus and must be surgically corrected in a newborn cheap 2 mg aceon with mastercard. In pyloric stenosis cheap aceon 4 mg overnight delivery, there is a narrowing of the liver is extremely serious because of the possibility of internal pyloric orifice of the stomach resulting from hypertrophy of the hemorrhage from such a vascular organ. This condition is more The spleen is another highly vascular organ that is fre- common in males than in females, and the symptoms usually ap- quently injured,especially from blunt abdominal trauma. The constricted opening interferes with the tured spleen causes severe internal hemorrhage and shock. Its Meckel’s diverticulum: from Johann Friedrich Meckel,German anatomist,1724–74 Hirschsprung’s disease: from Harold Hirschsprung, Danish physician, 1830–1916 Van De Graaff: Human IV. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 Chapter 10 Surface and Regional Anatomy 337 prompt removal (splenectomy) is necessary to keep the patient in gastric juice. The spleen may also rupture sponta- stomach, including alcohol and aspirin, and hypersecretion of neously because of infectious diseases that cause it to hypertrophy. The danger of a ruptured pancreas is the flow of pancre- Enteritis, or inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, is atic juice into the peritoneal cavity, the subsequent digestive ac- frequently referred to as intestinal flu. Diarrhea is symptomatic of inflamma- blow to one side propagates through the kidney and may possibly tion, stress, and other body dysfunctions. In children, it is of rupture the renal pelvis or the proximal portion of the ureter. Trauma to the external genitalia of both males and females is a relatively common occurrence. The pendant position of the Shoulder and Upper Extremity penis and scrotum makes them vulnerable to compression forces. For example, if a construction worker were to slip and land astride a steel beam, his external genitalia would be compressed Developmental Conditions between the beam and his pubic bone. In this type of accident, Twenty-eight days after conception, a limb bud appears on the the penis (including the urethra) might split open, and one or upper lateral side of the embryo, which eventually becomes a both testes might be crushed. Three weeks later (7 weeks Trauma to the female genitalia usually results from sexual after conception) the shoulder and upper extremity are present abuse. Vaginal tearing and a displaced uterus are common in in the form of mesenchymal primordium of bone and muscle. The physical and mental consequences are gener- is during this crucial 3 weeks of development that malformations ally severe. If a pregnant woman uses certain teratogenic drugs or is exposed to certain diseases (Rubella virus, for example) during Diseases of the Abdomen development of the embryo, there is a strong likelihood that Any of the abdominal organs may be afflicted by an array of dis- the appendage will be incompletely developed. It is beyond the scope of this text to cover all of these dis- ber of limb deformities occurred between 1957 and 1962 as a eases; instead, an overview of some general conditions will be result of women ingesting the sedative thalidomide during presented. It is estimated Knowledge of the clinical regions of the abdomen (see that 7,000 infants were malformed by this drug. Also important are the locations of the linea Although genetic deformities of the shoulder and upper ex- alba, extending from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis, tremity are numerous, only a few are relatively common.
Constitutive activity has been produced by specific point mutations of the b-adrenoceptor where conversion of Ala-293 to glu-293 results in a tenfold increase in constitutive activity buy aceon 8mg mastercard. GENETIC DISEASE Mutations producing constitutively active receptors have been found in several rare genetic diseases (Coughlin 1994) such as hyperthyroidism (TSH receptor) generic 8 mg aceon amex, precocious puberty (LH receptor) cheap 4mg aceon with amex, and retinitis pigmentosa (rhodopsin). Clearly the ability to manipulate the degree of constitutive receptor activity using drugs could provide a therapeutic strategy in these diseases. CONCLUSIONS Neurotransmitter receptors have evolved as one of the key components in the ability of the central nervous system to coordinate the behaviour of the whole animal, to process and respond to sensory input, and to adapt to change in the environment. These same receptors are therefore ideal targets for drug action because of their central role in the activity of the nervous system. A rational approach to the development of new therapeutic strategies involving the action of drugs at receptors in the nervous system is based on knowledge of receptor structure, distribution and function. APPENDIX 1 DERIVATION OF THE HILL COEFFICIENT (OR SLOPE) AS A DETERMINANT OF THE NUMBER OF BINDINGSITES FOR AN AGONIST (NEUROTRANSMITTER) ON ITS RECEPTOR The relationship between drug concentration and receptor occupancy The simplest model for the reversible combination of a drug, A, with its receptor, R, is: k1 A R ÀÀ*À AR A3:1 kÀ1 The law of mass action states that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants. Thus the rate of the forward reaction is proportional to ARk1AR, where k1 is the association rate constant (with units of MÀ1 sÀ1). Likewise, the rate of the backward reaction is proportional to ARk AR, where k is the dissociation rate constant (with units of sÀ1). At À1 À1 equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward reactions will be equal so 76 NEUROTRANSMITTERS, DRUGS AND BRAIN FUNCTION k1ARkÀ1AR Since receptors are embedded in cell membranes it is more convenient to consider the amount of receptor either free or bound as a proportion of the total receptor present. The proportion of receptors in state R (free) is pR R=RT where [R]T is the total concentration of receptors and pAR AR=RT is the proportion of receptors occupied by the drug. As the system is at equilibrium we can write k1AR=RT kÀ1AR=RT and hence k1ApR kÀ1 pAR Rearranging gives ApR kÀ1=k1 pAR kÀ1=k1 KA is defined as the dissociation equilibrium constant. Substitution for kÀ1=k1 gives ApR KA pAR Rearranging gives pR fKA=AgpAR In the simple two-state model shown in equation (A3. Its derivation assumes that the con- centration of A does not change as drug receptor complexes are formed. In effect, the drug is considered to be present in such excess that the number of drug molecules in solution is many times greater than the number of receptor molecules available for the drug to bind to. It can be rearranged to pAR A 1 À pAR KA NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS 77 and taking logs gives pAR log logAÀlog KA A3:3 1 À pAR Hence a plot of log (pAR= 1 À pAR)) against logA gives a straight line of unit slope. In practice, it is not often possible to directly measure pAR except in radioligand binding experiments. In many experiments it is the relationship between agonist con- centration A and percentage maximum response (y) which is measured (a dose± response curve) and the Hill plot is made by plotting y log logAÀlog KA A3:4 100 À y The slope of this log±log plot is known as the Hill coefficient (nH)orHill slope. If the slope is 1 this may imply there is only one agonist binding site on the receptor, while a slope approaching 2 implies two binding sites. In practice, the slope of the line may be greater or less than unity and is rarely an integer. Factors which can affect the Hill slope are particularly the presence of more than one population of receptors with different affinities for the agonist contributing to the response (nH 5 1), occurrence of receptor desensitisation (nH 5 1), the presence of more than one agonist binding site on the receptor (as occurs with the ligand-gated ion channel receptors) where more than one site needs to be occupied for efficient activation of the receptor (nH 4 1), and the presence of spare receptors in the tissue (nH 4 1).
This 30 PART I CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY NH2 COOH Out 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 In FIGURE 2 buy generic aceon 2 mg on-line. The polypeptide chain of 664 amino tein cheap aceon 2 mg fast delivery, including helices 1 to 9 generic 2mg aceon with mastercard, is required to couple Na binding to acids passes back and forth across the membrane 14 times. The five helices (10 to 14) at the C-terminus membrane-spanning segment consists of 21 amino acids arranged may form the transport pathway for glucose. Both the NH2 and the COOH ends Panayotova-Heiermann M, Eskandari S, Turk E, et al. Five trans- are located on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In membrane helices form the sugar pathway through the Na -glu- the functional protein, it is likely that the membrane-spanning cose cotransporter. The intestinal GLUT 2, like the erythrocyte GLUT 1, is a sodium-independent trans- porter that moves glucose down its concentration gradient. Unlike GLUT 1, the GLUT 2 transporter can accept other sugars, such as galactose and fructose, that are also ab- Cell sorbed in the intestine. The sodium ions that enter the cell layer with the glucose molecules on SGLT are pumped out by the Na /K -ATPase that is located in the basolateral mem- brane only. The polarized organization of the epithelial + cells and the integrated functions of the plasma membrane Na transporters form the basis by which cells accomplish trans- Na+ cellular movement of both glucose and sodium ions. K+ GLUT 2 Glucose Intercellular + K Amino spaces Blood acid THE MOVEMENT OF WATER ACROSS Basolateral side THE PLASMA MEMBRANE The localization of transport systems to dif- Since the lipid part of the plasma membrane is very hy- FIGURE 2. A polarized cell is pro- explain the speed at which water can move in and out of the duced, in which entry and exit of solutes, such as glucose, amino cells. The partition coefficient of water into lipids is very acids, and Na , occur at opposite sides of the cell. Active entry of low; therefore, the permeability of the lipid bilayer for wa- glucose and amino acids is restricted to the apical membrane and ter is also very low. Specific membrane proteins that func- exit requires equilibrating carriers located only in the basolateral tion as water channels explain the rapid movement of wa- membrane. For example, glucose enters on SGLT and exits on ter across the plasma membrane. Na that enters via the apical symporters is pumped out by the Na /K -ATPase on the basolateral membrane. The result small (molecular weight about 30 kDa) integral membrane is a net movement of solutes from the luminal side of the cell to proteins known as aquaporins. Ten different forms have the basolateral side, ensuring efficient absorption of glucose, been discovered so far in mammals. In this context, the term selectively per- In the kidney, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is abundant in the meable means that the membrane is permeable to water but collecting duct and is the target of the hormone arginine not solutes.